Ese Coup d’Etat yabereye i Gitarama mu 1961 yari ngombwa?

Yanditswe na Ferdinand Maniraguha
Kuya 29 Mutarama 2021 saa 07:07
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Imyaka 60 irashize i Gitarama (Muhanga y’ubu) habereye igikorwa cyagize ingaruka zikomeye mu mateka y’u Rwanda, aho umwami Kigeli V Ndahindurwa yahirikwaga ku butegetsi, ingoma ya cyami igakurwaho bigakorwa igihe umwami atari ari mu gihugu.

Tariki 28 Mutarama 1961 nibwo i Gitarama kuri Stade hari urujya n’uruza rw’amakamyo apakiye ba Burugumesitiri (nka meya w’ubu) n’abakonseye (ba gitifu b’imirenge) basaga 3500 baturutse imihanda yose y’igihugu.

Abaje bose bari abo mu mashyaka ya Parmehutu rya Grégoire Kayibanda na Aprosoma ya Habyarimana Joseph Gitera. Uwo munsi nibwo Kayibanda yatangarije aho ko ubwami n’umwami bivuyeho, ko u Rwanda ruhindutse repubulika, kandi aho kurangwa n’ingoma ngabe Kalinga, ruzajya rurangwa n’ibendera.

Uwo munsi umwami Kigeli V Ndahindurwa, yari amaze amezi atandatu mu buhungiro, nyuma yo kugirira uruzinduko mu mahanga yagerayo akamenyeshwa ko atemerewe kugaruka mu Rwanda.

U Bubiligi nibwo butungwa agatoki kuba bwari bubiri inyuma dore ko aribwo bwari bwarahawe u Rwanda n’u Burundi nk’indagizo, mu gihe Loni yari igitegurira ibyo bihugu kubona ubwigenge. Ubufasha bw’u Bubiligi kuri Parmehutu bwanyuraga muri Rezida wabwo udasanzwe mu Rwanda, Col Guy Logiest ari nawe watanze ubufasha bwose bw’ibyakenewe muri iyo nama yakuyeho ubwami.

Ese gukuraho ubwami byari ngombwa?

Nyuma y’itanga ry’umwami Mutara III Rudahigwa mu 1958, mu Rwanda hadutse imvururu zenyegejwe n’amashyaka dore ko aribwo yari acyaduka. Ababiligi bari batangiye gukorana na Parmehutu na Aprosoma, bahanganye na Lunari (UNAR) yari ishyigikiye ubwami.

Ubugizi bwa nabi bwakajije umurego mu 1959, Abatutsi hirya no hino mu gihugu baricwa, abandi baratwikirwa abarokotse bagahunga.

Inyandiko Van Der Meeren yise “Three Decades in Exile: Rwandan Refugees 1960–1990” ivuga ko hagati ya 1959 na 1963 mu Rwanda hahunze abatutsi basaga ibihumbi 120, bagahungira mu bihugu bihana imbibi n’u Rwanda.

Inzobere muri Politiki akaba n’umwanditsi, Dr Kimonyo Jean Paul yabwiye IGIHE ko Ababiligi bari baramaze gutegura umugambi wo gukuraho umwami mbere kuko bari baramaze kubona ko atabashyigikiye.

Ati “Rudahigwa yashakaga gukora amavugurura akomeye ariko Ababiligi ntibari babyitayeho, icyari kibashishikaje byari ugukuraho ubwami na UNAR […] Byari urugamba hagati y’Ababiligi bashakaga gusigira ubutegetsi abantu babo bazabungabunga inyungu zabo. Bashakaga kwikiza UNAR n’ubwami haba ku ngufu cyangwa ubundi bugizi bwa nabi.”

Umwami Rudahigwa na UNAR bashakaga ko u Rwanda rubona ubwigenge ako kanya ariko Ababiligi bakaruvamo, Abanyarwanda bagakomeza kwiyobora bayobowe n’umwami.

Senateri Mupenzi George yavuze ko Rudahigwa amaze gutanga, Ababiligi babaye nk’abagize amahirwe yo gushyiraho uwo bashaka, bakomwa mu nkokora n’abiru bahise bimika Kigeli Ndahindurwa.

Ati “Ndahindurwa ntibamushakaga ariko batinyaga gutera imvururu ku itabaro kuko babonaga hakiri abatsimbaraye ku mwami. Bashakaga uburyo bwose bushoboka, no kuba umwami baramukuyeho adahari ni kwa gufatirana amahirwe, babonye agiye Kinshasa bahita bakora icyo bari bagambiriye.”

Rudahigwa amaze gutabarizwa, Ababiligi baretse Kigeli Ndahindurwa akomeza kuyobora ariko bakabikora bamunaniza cyane.

Inkuru bijyanye: 28 Mutarama 1961: Umunsi wa mbere u Rwanda rugira Perezida n’ibendera muri Coup d’Etat y’i Gitarama

Muri Kamena 1960 habaye amatora y’inzego z’ibanze nk’uko Loni yari yarabisabye mu nzira yo kugira ngo u Rwanda ruzabone ubwigenge rufite inzego zihamye kandi zatowe n’abaturage.

Dr Kimonyo yavuze ko Ababiligi bari barateguye mbere gusigira ubutegetsi Parmehutu kuko ariyo yagaragazaga gusigasira inyungu zabo

Muri ayo matora Parmehutu yatsindiye imyanya myinshi. Hatowe ba burugumesitiri 229 n’abajyanama ba komine 2896. Ni amatora abanditsi nka Lemarchand bavuga ko yabayemo uburiganya nk’i Butare, Bugesera, Kibungo na Nyanza.

Hashize ukwezi kumwe ayo matora abaye nibwo Umwami Kigeli Ndahindurwa yagiye mu nama i Bujumbura, agezeyo amenyeshwa ko atemerewe gusubira mu gihugu.

Dr Kimonyo yavuze ko kubera ko ubwami bwari bukomeye kandi bukunzwe mu gihugu, Ababiligi bifashishije imvururu n’ubugizi bwa nabi ngo abaturage bacikemo ibice, inzego zo hasi ubwami bwari bwubwakiyeho zirasenywa kugira igere ku mugambi wo gusigira Parmehutu ubutegetsi.

Ati “Babonaga gukoresha ubugizi bwa nabi aribyo bizabafasha kuko ubwami bwari bugikomeye mu gihugu. Kugira ngo bagire ijambo hagati mu gihugu byabasabaga gusenya inzego z’ubuyobozi gakondo zari zihari. Mu mpera za 1959 no mu ntangiriro za 1960, batangiye kwica abayobozi b’inzego z’ibanze, mbere y’amatora ya komine.”

“Bagombaga gutanga ubutegetsi kuri Parmehutu babinyujije mu kavuyo mbere yo gutegura amatora kugira ngo n’iriya Coup d’Etat igire agaciro.”

Muri Coup d’Etat yakorewe Ndahindurwa n’ubwami, Dr Kimonyo avuga ko ariho Parmehutu yaboneye urwaho rwo guteza izindi mvururu n’iterabwoba kugira ngo babashe gutsinda amatora y’Abadepite na Kamarampaka yabaye muri Nzeri 1961.

Senateri Mupenzi George yavuze ko gufatirana umwami yagiye hanze bakamuhirika, bigaragaza ko bifuzaga gusigira ubutegetsi Parmehutu binyuze mu nzira zose zishoboka, ngo inyungu z’Ababiligi zibungabungwe.

Senateri Mupenzi yavuze ko iyo Ababiligi baba bashaka demokarasi mu Rwanda, bari gutegura amatora aciye mu mucyo, abaturage bose bakayitabira nta mvururu, ubugizi bwa nabi n'iterabwoba

Yavuze ko niba koko Ababiligi baraharaniraga demokarasi, kandi bakavuga ko abaturage badashaka ubwami, byari byoroshye gutegura amatora anyuze mu mucyo Abanyarwanda bose bari mu gihugu bakitabira, hagatorwa inzego zibereye abaturage nta n’umwe uhutajwe, u Bubiligi bukagenzura ko bikorwa mu mucyo.

Senateri Mupenzi George yavuze ko atari ko byagenze, ahubwo bagaragaje kubogamira kuri Parmehutu.

Ati “Bari bemeye ko amashyaka menshi ajyaho kandi afite ibyo asaba, amwe ari mu nyungu z’umukoloni andi avuga ubwigenge. Bo bari gukora ku buryo iyo gahunda ya demokarasi yari kugenda neza kuko n’umwami yari yayemeye, noneho amatora akaba badafite ishyaka babogamiyeho.”

Yakomeje agira ati “Niba koko ubwami butari bukunzwe, bwari kwivanaho binyuze muri demokarasi. Bavugaga ko Parmehutu ari imbaga nyamwishi nyamara tuzi ko hari benshi bari aba Lunari yahuzaga Abanyarwanda bose.”

Mupenzi George avuga ko icyagaragaje ko Coup d’Etat y’i Gitarama yari mu mugambi muremure w’Ababiligi, ari ubufasha batanze ubwo inama yahiritse ubwami yabaga, no gukorana kwa hafi hagati ya Musenyeri André-Perraudin na Guy Logiest wari uhagarariye u Bubiligi, ngo bafashe Parmehutu.

Na nyuma yo guhirika ubwami, u Bubiligi bwakomeje kugira ijambo mu Rwanda dore ko hari na Minisiteri z’ingenzi zirimo iy’ingabo bayoboye.

Loni yanze ubutegetsi bwari bwashyiriweho i Gitarama ariko ntacyo byatanze kuko Ababiligi bari babushyigikiye ndetse bakomeje kububa hafi kugeza ubwo habaga amatora y’abadepite na Kamarampaka muri Nzeri 1961, mu Ukwakira uwo mwaka bagahita batora Kayibanda nka Perezida wemewe usimbura Mbonyumutwa.

Dr Kimonyo yavuze ko u Rwanda rwabonye ubwigenge aricyo gihugu cya mbere gikennye ku isi, abaturage batangiye kwiyongera ariko imibereho yabo ari mibi.

Avuga ko ibyo bigaragaza ko Ababiligi mu Rwanda batari bashishikajwe n’iterambere ry’igihugu ari nacyo bapfuye na Rudahigwa, wagerageje kuzana amavugurura bakamwitambika, kugeza ubwo apfuye mu buryo butarasobanuka.

Dr Kimonyo yagaragaje ko amacakubiri, ivangura n’ubugizi bwa nabi aribyo byaranze Ababiligi ahantu hose bakolonije ndetse ahamya ko “Ubukoloni bw’u Bubiligi ni bumwe mu bwaranzwe n’ubwicanyi n’iteranyuma mu bihugu byose bakolonije.”

Atanga urugero rw’ibyo bakoze muri Repubulika Iharanira Demokarasi ya Congo ubwo bicaga Patrice Lumumba waharaniraga ubwigenge, no mu Burundi bakica igikomangoma Louis Rwagasore.

Umunsi w'amatora ya Kamarampaka tariki 25 Nzeli 1961
Kayibanda, Mbonyumutwa n'abandi bari ibikomerezwa muri Parmehutu ubwo hemezwaga ko ubwami buvuyeho

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