U Rwanda rurubaka Demokarasi irubereye- Prof. Shyaka

U Rwanda rurubaka Demokarasi irubereye- Prof. Shyaka


Yanditswe kuya 24-06-2012 - Saa 15:07' na IGIHE

Mu rwego rwo kwizihiza isabukuru y’imyaka 50 rumaze rubonye ubwigenge izaba ku itariki ya 1 Nyakanga 2012, Leta y’u Rwanda, ibinyujije mu Kigo cy’Igihugu gishinzwe imiyoborere ( Rwanda Governance Board-RGB), irategura inama mpuzamahanga izaba tariki 30 Kamena. Iyi nama ifite insanganyamatsiko igira iti: “Inama Mpuzamahanga ku Miyoborere na Demokarasi: Ijambo ry’Afurika”; izahuza abayobozi, inararibonye n’inzobere bazaba baturutse muri Amerika, Iburayi, muri Aziya, muri Afurika na hano mu Rwanda.

Iyi nama izabanzirizwa kandi n’ibindi biganiro bizahuza abahanga n’abashakashatsi mu byerekeye Imiyoborere na Demokarasi baturutse hirya no hino ku Isi nabyo bizaba kuwa 28 - 29 Kamena, 2012.

Umuyobozi Mukuru wa RGB, Prof Shyaka Anastase yaganiriye na IGIHE kuri iyo nama n’aho ihuriye n’ubwigenge ndetse no kwibohora. Avuga ko iyi nama ari ingirakamaro cyane kuko izatuma abatumirwa bose basubiza amaso inyuma bagasuzuma icyo Afurika n’u Rwanda bagezeho mu rwego rw’imiyoborere na demokarasi nyuma y’imyaka 50 y’ubwigenge. Mu kiganiro kirambuye isomere uko Umuyobozi Mukuru wa RGB, Prof Shyaka abyivugira.

Prof Shyaka, ngo iyi nama ntisanzwe kandi hazaza abantu bo mu rwego rwo hejuru. Abo ni bande?

Iyi nama ni ingirakamaro kuko izatuma dusubiza amaso inyuma tugasuzuma aho tuvuye naho tugeze mu rwego rw’imiyoborere na demokarasi muri Afurika no mu Rwanda, by’umwihariko nyuma y’imyaka 50 y’ubwigenge. Ibi kandi tuzabikora ari nako tureba amasomo twakura mu bihe byahise n’ibyo turimo tuganisha ku byadufasha ejo hazaza. Bamwe mu bazaza muri iyi nama harimo Dr. Jendai Frazer wahoze ari umunyabanga wa leta wungirije ushinzwe Afurika muri Amerika, hari Madamu Geraldine Fraser-Moleketi, akaba ari umuyobosi ku rwego rw’isi w’imiyoborere muri UNDP uzava i New York, hazaza umunyabanga wungirije wa Commonwealth madamu Masekgoa Masire-Mwamba, dufite na Prof Wole Soyinka, umuhanga wo muri Nigeria wabonye igihembo bita Nobel mu bumenyi bw’ibyerekeye indimi, Jan Ziegler, inararibonye muri politiki mpuzamahanga wo mu Busiwisi, hazaba hari kandi na Dr Donald Kaberuka, Perezida wa Banki Nyafurika Itsura Amajyambere, hazaza kandi n’izindi ntiti nyinshi zivuye mu bihugu bisaga 15 no mu Rwanda.

Abantu bo muri urwo rwego ntibapfa kujya aho ariho hose. Kuba baje mu Rwanda bivuze iki?

Ikintu cya mbere bivuze n’Abanyarwanda bakwiye kumva no kumenya ni uko inzira ya demokarasi twahisemo, imiyoborere myiza igihugu cyacu cyubatse nyuma y’urugamba rwo kwibohora, bimaze kugaragarira buri wese ko ari inzira nyayo ibereye u Rwanda kandi iruteza imbere. Imbuto nziza zabyo mu Rwanda turazisarura no mu mahanga barabibona. Ibi rero bituma u Rwanda ruba nyabagendwa, abantu nkabo bakomeye bakishimira kurugana, kurugendamo, kurusura no kurwumva kurushaho kuko rushobora no rushobora no kugira amasomo ab’ahandi barukuraho. Aha ninaho kwibohora byadufashije gushyikira ubwigenge nyakuri. Ubu Abanyarwanda ubwabo nibo bihitiyemo imiyoborere n’inzira ya demokarasi ibabereye, bashingiye ku mateka banyuzemo baravuga bati imiyoborere na demokarasi dushaka itubereye ni iyi, banayitora mu itegeko nshinga rya 2003.

Ubu Abanyarwanda bumva kandi bazi inzira ya demokarasi n’imiyoborere bashaka? Watubwira imirongo mikuru iyiranga?

U Rwanda rukimara kubona ubwigenge, rwaranzwe no guhuzagurika muri politiki. Inzira ya demokarasi kuva mu mpera za 1950 kugeza muri 1994, aho kubushimangira, yarabuhungabanyije. Aho kuzana ibyiza buri gihe zajyanaga n’imvururu, intambara, inkundura y’imidugararo n’amacakubiri mu banyarwanda kugera kuri Jenoside. Urugamba rwo kwibohora rwazanye impinduka nziza. Ubu rero Abanyarwanda bazi demokarasi ibabereye, bayihisemo ntibagishakisha, nta n’ubwo bigana abandi banayihitamo bashingiye ku mateka yabo. Imiyoborere bashaka ni imiyoborere iha ijambo umuturage kandi ikita ku mibereho ye, abayobozi bagaharanira kumuteza imbere.

Iyi miyoborere myiza na demokarasi y’ u Rwanda irangwa n’ibintu bitanu by’ ingenzi aribyo ibi bikurikira:
• Demokarasi ishingiye ku mashyaka menshi ariko arangwa no gukorera hamwe, mu bwumvikane, aho guhangana no guhanganisha abaturage;
• Imyanya mu butegetsi isaranganyijwe;
• Guha ijambo n’uruhare rugaragara abategarugori n’urubyiruko mu miyoborere y’igihugu;

• Guha ijambo n’agaciro umuturage, akaba ipfundo rya gahunda za leta, akagira uruhare muri gahunda za Leta kandi ubuyobozi bugaharanira kumuteza imbere;
• Guhora twisuzuma, tugaha agaciro kandi tugakoresha ibipimo by’ubushakashatsi bifatika, bigaragaza aho tugeze, n’aho dukeneye kongeramo ingufu, no guha agaciro uburyo bw’umwimerere, cyangwa se budasanzwe mu gushakasha ibisubizo by’ibibazo byacu.
Ni imiyoborere yita kuri buri munyarwanda, aho Abanyarwanda bavuze bati «umugore nawe ahabwe ijambo, ajye mu nzego zifata ibyemezo», none kugeza ubu amahanga asigaye adufatiraho urugero.

Abanyarwanda barangije kwishyiriraho inzira y’imiyoborere na demokarasi ibabereye, ubu irahari kandi barabizi. Ahubwo icyo tugomba gukora ni ukuyibungabunga tukayishimangira igakomera. Aba bantu bakomeye bazaza muri iyi nama rero abenshi ibi barabizi, abandi baje kubyirebera. Tuzaganira ariko no ku by’ahandi kandi turibwira ko twese tuzabyungukiramo.

Kubera iki RGB ari yo iri muri iki gikorwa cyo gutegura iyi nama?

Twatekereje gukora iki gikorwa kuko biri mu nshingano zacu. Nk’ikigo cy’igihugu gishinzwe imiyoborere , twateguye iyi nama kuko dusanga ari ingirakamaro ku mpamvu nyinshi. Mubyo dushinzwe harimo guteza imbere amahame y’imiyoborere myiza, ndetse na demokarasi kuko burya demokarasi ibaho iturutse ku miyoborere, harimo kandi no kugenzura uko ayo mahame ashyirwa mu bikorwa mu nzego zitandukanye. Ibi rero bumwe mu buryo dukoresha ngo tubigereho ni ugukora ubushakashatsi bushingiye ku bipimo bifatika no gushyikirana n’izindi nzego ndetse n’impuguke zitandukanye, zaba izo mu Rwanda cyangwa mu mahanga.

Wavuze ko mushingira ku bipimo bifatika mu miyoborere. Bivuze iki?

Dukora ubushakashatsi bushingiye ku bipimo bifatika, kugira ngo tubone ishusho nyayo y’imiyoborere mu gihugu cyacu. Ikindi kandi muri ubwo bushakashatsi dushingira ahanini ku baturage, bikaduha ishusho nyayo y’uko duhagaze n’uko umuturage anyuzwe, ibitekerezo bye ndetse n’ibyo anenga. Ibyo tukabishingiraho tugira inama leta ku kuntu imiyoborere myiza yanozwa ndetse igakomeza gushinga imizi.

Urashaka kuvuga ko Guverinoma yemera, ikubaha kandi igashyira mu bikorwa ibishingiye ku bumenyi n’ubushakashatsi?

Rwose ibyo uvuga ni ko bimeze! Ubushakashatsi bushingiye ku bipimo bifatika, burakirwa, kandi buhabwa agaciro, kuko byumvikana ko butanga isura nyayo. Kandi ngira ngo si igitangaza ku gihugu nk’u Rwanda, cyane cyane ko kinafite intego yo kugira ubukungu bushingiye ku bumenyi (knowledge based economy).

Nonese inzira ya demokarasi wavugaga ihari ubu nayo yanyuze muri ubu buryo?

Inzira ya Demokarasi ubu tugenderamo ni 100% umusaruro w’ibyo abaturage bihitiyemo. Iyo urebye ibyemezo by’Inama yo mu Rugwiro (mu Biro bya Perezida wa Repubulika) yabaye muri 1998/99 n’inzira twanyuzemo kugira ngo Abanyarwanda bitorere ’Itegeko Nshinga muri 2002/03, uhita ubona uruhare rukomeye abaturage bagize mu gushyiraho inzira ya demokarasi dufite ubu. N’ubwo nta wakwemeza ko kiriya gihe abaturage b’Abanyarwanda batari bazi neza ibyerekeye demokarasi ishingiye ku bwumvikane, ariko iyo urebye ibyo bashakaga, uko babivugaga, ibyifuzo byabo, ibyo bamaganaga, uko Itegeko Nshinga ryavuyemo rimeze, usanga neza bijya gusa n’ibyo mu bindi bihugu bifite demokarasi ishingiye ku bwumvikane, nk’u Busuwisi, u Buholandi ndetse n’ahandi n’ubwo muri buri gihugu haba hari umwihariko waho. i. Ntabwo rero twiganye iy’abandi ahubwo twashingiye ku mateka yacu ariko icyo twashakaga kugeraho gisa n’icyo nabo bashakaga kugeraho. Ibi rero birangwa na none n’ihame ry’ ubutegetsi busangiwe, ndetse kuba twarahisemo gushyiraho ihuriro ry’amashyaka, tukanagenera n’ibyiciro byihariye by’Abanyarwanda imyanya mu buyobozi n’imiyoborere y’igihugu: urubyiruko, abamugaye n’abagore bose.

Hari ikindi kintu nashakaga gushimangira hano, imvugo ivuga ngo dufite iterambere ariko imiyoborere ntayo, ibyo ntashingiro bifite. Nta kuntu wagera ku iterambere ngo uvuge ngo ufite imiyoborere mibi kandi imiyoborere ari yo ibyara iterambere. Ibyo rwose ni ibinyoma.

Prof, uyu munsi turi kwizihiza imyaka 50 y’ubwigenge. Kandi turizihiza imyaka 18 yo kwibohora. Ubu wavuga ko tumaze kugera kuki?

Icyo navuga cyo ni uko tumaze kugera kuri byinshi. Nyuma y’ubwigenge twagize ibibazo byinshi ariko nyuma y’urugamba rwo kwibohora ibintu byagiye mu buryo, twarihuse mu bintu bitandukanye ku buryo bugaragara. Ubu Abanyarwanda bakwishimira ko bafite ubuzare bungana mu gihugu cyabo, ko ubunyarwanda ubu bwahawe intebe, ubumwe bwabo bwitaweho kandi buragenda bufata intera ishimishije; umutekano turawufite, iterambere mu bukungu no mu mibereho myiza si amagambo bigeze ku ntera twakwishimira n’ubwo inzira ikiri ndede ngo dusezerere ubukene burundu; ndetse u Rwanda rumaze no kuba icyitegererezo ku rwego mpuzamahanga nko mu bijyanye no kurwanya ruswa, kubasha kwikemurira ibibazo, kubaka amahoro n’umutekano nyuma y’intamabara, uburezi kuri bose, kwegereza ubuyobozi n’ubushobozi abaturage n’ibindi.

Wadufasha ukadusobanurira itandukaniro hagati y’ubwigenge no kwibohora?

Murabizi ko ubwigenge mbumvikanisha ibihe byo kwigobotora ingoma ya gikoloni. Kiriya gihe cya za 1962, twabonye ubwigenge, ariko ntitwabugira nyabyo. Ariko n’icyo gice cyari ngombwa. Kuba rero tutaragize ubwigenge bwuzuye ngo tunabubyaze amahoro, iterambere n’uburumbuke kuri bene kanyarwanda bose, nibyo byatumye dukenera kwibohora. Urugamba rwo kwibohora rero rwaje kuzuza ibyari bicagase no gukosora ibyari bikosamye, guha Abanyarwanda ubwigenge nyabwo. Urugero ni imiyoborere Abanyarwanda bose bibonamo, bagiramo uruhare kandi yubaka ubumwe bwabo aho kubavangura nka mbere.

Nonese kwibohora ko kwarabwujuje ubwo bwigenge?
Aho ngaho rwose niho ipfundo riri. Ku buryo bw’ishusho ngari kandi ntasubirwaho, nk’uko nabivuze mu kanya, kwibohora kwasubije ikibazo cyari gihari kandi kuzuza ubwigenge butari bwuzuye.
Bisobanure tubyumve neza.

Nyuma y’ubwigenge bwa 1962 habayeho uguhuzagurika muri politiki no kutumva ubwigenge icyo aricyo, n’icyo bwagombaga kuzanira Abanyarwanda. Uko guhuzagurika kw’abanyapolitiki kwashyize amacakubiri ku ntebe, bituma yitiranwa n’ubwigenge; Abanyarwanda bamwe bagirwa abanzi b’ubwigenge, igihugu kiba icya bamwe, ubwigenge buzana n’ubuhunzi. Ibi akaba ari nabyo byatugejeje ku ndunduro ya jenoside muri 1994. Ukundi guhuzagurika kwari gushingiye ku kutumva Demokarasi icyo aricyo no kuyitiranya n’amoko. Icyagaragazaga ko amashyaka akora, ko afite ingufu, ni uko yashoboraga guteza imvururu akanakongeza imidugarararo mu baturage. Iterambere n’imibereho myiza byari hasi cyane, uburinganire bwari inzozi, kureshyeshya abenegihugu ntibyariho, u Rwanda ntirwari rufite agaciro kagaragara mu ruhando rw’amahanga. Ibi byose byakongezwaga n’ubuyobozi butari bufite icyerekezo kizima, bigatuma imiyoborere y’igihugu itanoga. Ariko nyuma yo kwibohora ibyo byose byabonewe umuti . Ubu imiyoborere ishingiye ku muturage, niwe pfundo. Demokarasi twubaka ishingiye ku bwumvikane bw’amashyaka kandi niyo ibereye u Rwanda kuko ari Abanyarwanda bayubatse. Isaranganya ry’ubutegetsi n’imyanya y’ubuyobozi birakorwa kandi ni intambwe ikomeye mu kubaka amahoro arambye. Guha ijambo abagore n’urubyiruko muri politiki ntibikiri inzozi kandi bifite akamaro cyane. Abaturage bafite icyizere kandi ni mu gihe.

Bigaragarira he?

Ku ncuro ya mbere nibwo havuzwe ko u Rwanda ari urw’Abanyarwanda bose. Bose barareshya kandi iki ni cyo kintu nyamukuru twari twarabuze. Mu mashuri ubu abana bose bayafiteho uburenganzira bungana. Kubona ishuri ntawukubaza ngo uri iki? Oya. Ikibazo ni “ufite manota angahe?”. Mu bushakashatsi dukora, bigaragara ko abaturage bishimiye izo mpinduka, kandi bafitiye icyizere inzego.

Nasomye ubushakashatsi aho babajije abaturage ba Tanzaniya, Uganda, Kenya n’u Rwanda ku cyizere bafitiye inzego z’ubuyobozi n’iz’umutekano mu bihugu byabo, Abanyarwanda gusa nibo bavuze ko bizera inzego z’ubuyobozi. Ibi nibyo?

Si mu bihugu byo muri aka karere honyine, no ku rwego rw’isi, Abanyarwanda baba mu baturage b’isi bafitiye icyizere kiri hejuru inzego z’umutekano n’iz’ubuyobozi bw’igihugu. Ibyo ni impamo, kandi bifite ishingiro. Ibuka cyera abasirikare bari batinyitse cyane, wahuraga n’umusirikare ukiruka uti ntahakura imbwa yiruka; ariko ubu iyo ubonye umusirikare ari nka nijoro nibwo ahubwo wiruhutsa ukumva umutekano wawe uhari koko. Ubu birazwi ko umusirikare ari uw’umuturage w’umunyarwanda ntabwo ari uw’igice kimwe cy’Abanyarwanda. Abayobozi nabo nuko, bitaye ku bo bayobora. Ibyo byose rero Abanyarwanda barabibona kandi bikabanyura, bakabivuga.

Uvuze gufata neza umunyarwanda? Ingingo ya 10 y’itegeko nshinga ivuga ko Umunyarwanda ari intavogerwa kandi inzego zose za leta zishinzwe kumurengera. Ibise dushingiye kuri bya bipimo cyangwa bimenyetso wavugaga birakorwa?

Ibyo birakorwa rwose. Agaciro k’Umunyarwanda na Perezida wa Repubulika ubwe akunze kukagarukaho kenshi; bigaragaza ko kamuri ku mutima. Kandi intero ye iratanga umusaruro: Abanyarwanda bamaze kukibonamo ndetse n’amahanga biragaragara ko agenda arushaho kukabaha. Iyo Abanyarwanda bari ahantu hakaba ibibazo imbaraga u Rwanda rukoresha mu kubatabara ntahandi muri Afurika biba. Urugero muribuka ubwo imvururu zatangiraga mu bihugu by’Abarabu umwaka ushize. N’ubwo u Rwanda atari igihugu gikize ariko muribuka ukuntu rwihutiye gutabara Abanyarwanda bari muri ibyo bihugu. Ibi bigaragaza uko iriya ngingo ya 10 wavugaga yubahirizwa. Hari n’izindi ngero nyinshi, hafi yacu. Ibi byose ni impinduka nziza mu miyoborere zaje nyuma yo kwibohora.

Wavuze ko u Rwanda rufite inzira ya Demokarasi nziza ibereye Abanyarwanda ndetse idakenewe no guhindurwa, ibi bihuriye he n’iyi nama mpuzamahanga muri gutegura?

Iyi myaka mirongo 50 y’ubwigenge si ku Rwanda gusa ni ku bihugu byinshi by’Afurika. Iyo myaka twanyuzemo, ibyabaye mu Rwanda ndetse no mu bindi bihugu by’Afurika byose byari ishusho y’’imiyoborere yabyo. Ahabaye ibibazo byatewe n’imiyoborere mibi, n’aho byagenze neza nabyo byashingiye ku miyoborere myiza. Niyo mpamvu twateguye iyi nama kugira ngo impuguke zitandukanye zaba izo mu bihugu bikennye cyangwa ibikize, dusubize amaso inyuma, dusuzume inzira twanyuzemo, turebe aho tugeze ariko tunareba n’imbere, cyane cyane aho dushaka kugana mu rwego rwo kwiyubaka nk’Afurika n’ u Rwanda.

U Rwanda rugomba gukomeza gushimangira inzira rwubaka ya demokarasi irubereye n’imiyoborere myiza, ishingiye ku muturage kandi iharanira kumuteza imbere muri byose. Ibi nibyo n’ibindi bihugu bya Afurika bikeneye, buri kimwe mu buryo bwacyo. Abanyafurika bakwiye gukomera ku ijambo ryabo mu kubaka iyo demokarasi ibereye Afurika; bakimakaza imiyoborere myiza igomba kuba umusemburo w’iterambere, bagaharanira kwivana mu bukene no kwihesha agaciro kurushaho.

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